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翻译(001) 犯罪调查中的DNA技术  

2016-01-01 16:22:03|  分类: 高中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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翻译(001)   犯罪调查中的DNA技术

                                                                                                                              命题:佳中

Directions:

 Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.   (10 points)

 

  DNA analysis has revolutionized criminal investigations by giving investigators a powerful new tool in the attempt to prove guilt. (46)The technique has been so successfully applied in criminal investigations that the media coverage has left the public a strong perception that DNA analysis is infallible. The technique is too complex for lay people to understand.

   (47) A controversy has erupted in the scientific community over the accuracy of DNA analysis in criminal investigations since the power of both single and multi-locus probes diminishes rapidly if the sample is old or degraded by sunlight and weather. Two weeks in many cases is too late. But a new technique could change that. PRC, or polymerase chain reaction, can build copies of even the tiniest fragments of deteriorated amount of DNA, which can be increased a billion-fold.

   Using PRC, the DNA from the cells of a mammoth preserved for 40,000 years in the Siberian permafrost has been compared to the DNA of a modern elephant, and revealed remarkable similarities. The FBI is developing the system to produce typable amounts of DNA from saliva on stamps, envelopes and cigarette butts. The technique can produce accurate comparisons from the root cells of a single hair.

   Computer power over the last decade now allows automatic searches of fingerprint files to match a print at a crime scene. Fingerprints are complex structures, but an individual’s DNA can be characterized simply by a list of numbers, which is easier to store and to access on computer. One of the recommendations by the US National Academy of Sciences in its report was for the creation of a national DNA database of information on felons convicted of violent crimes, particularly rapes, where there is a high incidence of re-offending.

   (48) In the United States, a variety of different state laws govern the taking of blood samples for forensic evidence, but all allow for “reasonable force” to be used in the execution of court orders and search warrants to obtain such samples. In Britain, the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act of April 1995 reaffirm the earlier Police and Criminal Evidence Act, stating that blood samples cannot be taken without consent. The new Act does, however, reclassify saliva as non-intimate samples. With developments in DNA profiling techniques, saliva samples from the mouth are perfectly adequate to produce an accurate DNA profile.

   (49) The work of forensic scientists is slower and more analytical than it is quick and insightful. (50)But the quality and the care in its presentation are reflected by the fact that few cases actually get as far as a main trial in the courtroom. As defendants listen to the quality of the forensic evidence in a preliminary hearing, they are often convinced by the weight of scientific information against them and admit their guilt before a trail can take place. DNA evidence will certainly play a larger part in providing high-quality forensic evidence for criminal trials in the future.  

                                                                                                     (487 words)

 

 

46. 这种技术在犯罪调查中得到如此成功的应用,以致媒体对其的报道使公众深信DNA分析是绝对正确的。

47. 如果样本陈旧或受阳光和气候的影响而变质,单点和多点检测的力度就会大大减弱,因此,在科技界对犯罪调查中DNA分析的准确性引起争论。

48. 在美国对提取血样作为法庭证据,各州有不同的法律限制,但它们都无一例外允许使用“合理强制手段”来执行法庭指令和凭搜查许可证获取血液样本。

49. 法医科学家的工作与其说是迅速和富有洞察力的,还不如说是缓慢和更具分析性的。

50. 但是,几乎没有什么案件能真正会成为法庭审理的主要案件,这一事实反映出了法医科学家工作所展现的质量和仔细程度。

 

 

 

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