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中学生英语学习常见错误一览表(字母O、P、R、T)  

2014-04-24 11:40:07|  分类: 高中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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         O

  o'clock 

[误] It's ten past five o'clock.

[正] It's ten past five.

[析] o'clock所表达的时间是正点,如果要表达的时间是几点几分或差几分几点都不能用o'clock.

once 

[误] Please come and see me once.

[正] Please come and see me one day.

[析] once用来谈论过去的事情,而不能谈论未来。如果要谈及未来要用one day, some time等。

[误] I met him one time when I was a student.

[正] I met him once when I was a student.

[析] 英语中一次应用once而不用one time,二次要用twice而不用two times.

one 

[误] My grandfather wants to live for hundred years.

[正] My grandfather wants to live for one hundred years.

[误] He threw away the old dictionary and wanted to buy new one.

[正] He threw away the old dictionary and wanted to buy a new one.

[误] His dog is bigger than my one.

[正] His dog is bigger than mine.

[析] 一般物主代词之后不用one,除非one前有修饰词,如my old one, 否则要用名词性物主代词。

[误] One of the teacher is in the office.

[误] One of the teachers are in the office.

[正] One of the teachers is in the office.

[析] One是句子的主语,其谓语动词应用单数,而of后面的名词要用复数名词。

[误] One third of the books is sent to the students.

[正] One third of the books are sent to the students.

[析] 几分之几或百分之几这一结构用在主语位置,其谓语动词要与of后面的名词一致,如Two thirds of the work is done.

open 

[误] Are the banks opened today?

[正] Are the banks open today?

[析] 要注意open即可用作动词、名词,还可以用作形容词,而close则不同。请看: Are the banks closed today?这一句是正确的。

or 

[误] He doesn't drink and smoke.

[正] He doesn't drink or smoke.

[析] 否定句中的并列连词要用or而不用and.

[误] He neither drinks or smokes.

[正] He neither drinks nor smokes.

other 

[误] Where are the others students?

[正] Where are the other students?

[正] Where are the others?

[析] other作形容词时没有复数形式,且作为泛指讲时没有定冠词,如: Ask some other eople. 而加定冠词后为特指。 the other可在句中作主语、宾语或定语,如: Now let me show you the other. (宾语) He has two sons. One is a worker, the other is a teacher. (主语) others 只能作代词,而the others则为特指,如: There are five books. Two of them are not good. I like the others.

out 

[误] She went out the classroom, taking a dictionary with her.

[正] She went out of the classroom, taking a dictionary with her.

[析] out of是指"从……里出来",使用时不要将of丢掉。

 P

 

paper 

[误] Please give me two letter papers.

[正] Please give me two sheets of letter paper.

[析] paper作为纸讲为不可数名词。

[误] Each student must write paper on what he learned.

[正] Each student must write a paper on what he learned.

[析] 这里的paper作为论文讲,是可数名词。paper的这种用法还可以用于证件、报纸、考卷等。

parent 

[误] My parents and I are both interested in football.

[正] My parents and I are all interested in football.

[析] parents即为父母、双亲,指两个人,加上自己为三个人,所以只能用all而不能用both.

pass 

[误] The ship pasted the channel.

[正] The ship passed the channel.

[析] pass为动词,而past则为副词,不要混淆,如: My father has been ill for the past two weeks. All the students passed the exam.

pay 

[误] Please help me do this job, and I will pay for you later.

[正] Please help me do this job and I will pay you later.

[析] 为某工作付给工人工资应为pay somebody, 而pay for something是为某物付款,如: You can buy all the things you want. I'll pay for those.

people 

[误] There are five hundred peoples here.

[正] There are five hundred people here.

[误] There is only one people.

[正] There is only one person.

[误] People there is friendly.

[正] People there are friendly.

[析] people作为人讲时为复数名词,如要讲一个人应用one person, 而不能用people, 讲若干人时用people而不能加s,这样的用法还有police(警察)等,这些概念用单数时要换其他的词. 如: people-a person; police-policeman policewoman; youth-a young man/woman.

picture 

[误] There are some spots in the picture.

[正] There are some spots on the picture.

[误] There is a young woman on the picture.

[正] There is a young woman in the picture.

[析] 指溅落在画面上的灰尘,污物是on the picture,即讲与画面内容无关的东西用on,而in the picture用于讲画面的内容。

pity 

[误] What pity that her mother must always suffer!

[正] What a pity that her mother must always suffer!

[析] pity作为遗憾之事讲常加不定冠词;但要注意作为同情、怜悯讲则不加冠词,为不可数名词,如: I feel pity for you. 它还可以用作动词,如: He pitied the poor people.

[误] I have pity for you.

[正] I have pity on you.

[析] 可怜某人时应用have (take) pity on somebody,这是个惯用法。

place 

[误] Last year he went to America. He travelled from place to another.

[正] Last year he went to America. He travelled from place to place (from one place to another).

[析] 到处译为英文时为from place to place请不要在place之前加冠词。这种用法在有些语法书中叫作零冠词用法,如:一户挨一户为door by door,手拉手为hand in hand.

[误] The accident was taken place in that street.

[正] The accident took place in that street.

[析] take place为发生,它不能用于被动态,这样的词还有happen等。

[误] There is no place in the bus.

[正] There is no room in the bus.

[析] room这里为不可数名词,意为空间,即没有地方了。place多指场所所在之地。

[误] I came here to take place of Mr Smith.

[正] I came here to take the place of Mr Smith.

[析] take the place of 意为代替、取代某人某事。

play 

[误] Do you want to play guitar?

[正] Do you want to play the guitar?

[误] I like to play the bridge.

[正] I like to play bridge(桥牌).

[析] play作为玩讲时,在各种乐器前要加冠词,在各种体育运动前则没有冠词。

please 

[误] My friend pleased me to his birthday party yesterday.

[正] My friend invited me to his birthday party yesterday.

[析] please作为动词时其词义不是请,而是高兴、愿意等意,如: She always does what she pleases. (她总是想做什么就做什么。)又如: It's hard to please all. 而please作为请讲时为语气词,多用于祈使句中,如: Please come in.

[误] Both the teacher and the mother were pleased to the little girl.

[正] Both the teacher and the mother were pleased with the little girl.

[析] 对某人表示满意、喜欢,应用be pleased with somebody. 对某事感到高兴和满意时多用be pleased at或about,但有时也可用with,却不能用of.

pleasure 

[误] The boy gave his parents a lot of pleasures.

[正] The boy gave his parents a lot of pleasure.

[析] pleasure作为高兴、愉快、享乐、娱乐 讲时为不可数名词。

[误] It is pleasure to work with you.

[正] It is a pleasure to work with you.

[析] pleasure作为一件或某件乐事、高兴之事讲时为 可数名词,如: It is one of my pleasures.

police 

[误] The police has not found the cause of the accident.

[正] The police have not found the cause of the accident.

[析] police为复数名词,它没有单数形式。如果要讲一个警察 要用a policeman,两个要用two policemen,或a policewoman, two policewomen.

prepare 

[误] I'm preparing the exam.

[正] I'm preparing for the exam.

[误] We'll return in time for you to prepare for dinner.

[正] We'll return in time for you to prepare dinner.

[析] prepare既是及物动词,又是不及物动词。作及物动词时 其后面所跟的事物是正在 准备的;而作不及物动词时for后面的事物是目标。如: I'm preparing for the exam. 应

译为我正在为考试做准备。同样的用法还有search与search for.

present 

[误] Don't worry. I can present the meeting.

[正] Don't worry. I can be present at the meeting.

[析] present作为出席、在场讲时,是形容词而不应 用作动词。其动词意为 送给;赠给;提出,如: The reporter presented arguments of his idea.

 put

[误] She put off her red dress and put on the green one.

[正] She took off her red dress and put on the green on e.

[析] 与put连用的介词很多,一般来讲on与off是一对相反的意 义的介词,如: turn on (打开),turn off(关上),穿衣服是put on,但脱衣服却只能用take off,而put o ff是推迟、使某人下车、关掉之意,如: They put off the exam because t he national holiday. (因国家假日而推迟考期。)Could you put me off at the Town Ha ll. (请在市政厅让我下车。)Please put off the wireless before you leave. (走之前 请关掉无线电。)

 



radio


[误] There are two radioes in the classroom.
[正] There are two radios in the classroom.
[误] I heard the weather report through the radio.
[正] I heard the weather report on the radio.
[析] 在收音机中听到某事应为hear something on the ra dio,听收音机应为l isten to the radio. 这样的用法还有电视,看电视为watch TV,讲在电视上看见什么节目为watch…on TV,如: I'm watching the football match on TV. 但注意,作为 一种通信手段时应为by radio, 如: Police are talking to each other by radio. rain 
[误] There is a small rain falling.
[正] There is a light rain falling.
[误] There is a big rain.
[正] There is a heavy rain.
[析] 大雨在英文中应为a heavy rain, rain cats and do gs 为倾盆大雨,小雨为a light rain. 千万不要讲a big rain 或a small rain. 当作动词讲时,雨下得很 大可译为: It rains very much now/hard now/heavily now.
reach


[误] We reached to the town very late.
[正] We reached the town very late.
[析] reach作为到达讲是及物动词,而arrive为不及物动词。但要注意reach的词组 搭配,如reach for, 为伸手去拿,如: The thief reached for the gun. reach ou t伸出手,如: He reached out and took an interesting book.
ready 
[误] You must ready at once.
[正] You must be ready at once.
[析] ready为形容词,而不像中文中准备为动词。
remember


[误] I didn't remember closing the door, so the thief c ame into the room directly.
[正] I didn't remember to close the door, so the thief came into the room directly.
[析] remember其后接动名词,动名词所表示的动作已经做完, 如: I don't remember meeting you. 其后如接不定式,不定式表达的动作还没有去做,如: Do remember to tur n off the light before you leave.
rest 
[误] The rest of the students is girls.
[正] The rest of the students are girls.
[析] rest作剩余部分讲时,the rest of…结构作主语时其谓语动词应与of后面的名词的数保持一致。这种用法还有1/3 of, 80% of等。
[误] The rest of the work are done.
[正] The rest of the work is done.
return 
[误] My friends returned back to their second home town .
[正] My friends returned to their second home town.
[析] return即为返回,所以back是多余的。这句话还可以表述为: My friends went back to their second home town.
rice


[误] We had a few rice and some bread.
[正] We had a little rice and some bread.
[析] rice为物质名词,为不可数名词。
rice


[误] We had a few rice and some bread.
[正] We had a little rice and some bread.
[析] rice为物质名词,为不可数名词。
rich 
[误] The country is rich of oil.
[正] The country is rich in oil.
[析] be rich in 为盛产……。
[误] The rich is not always happy.
[正] The rich are not always happy.
[析] 形容词加定冠词表示一类人,作主语时要作复数看待。
[误] All his riches is no good to him if he is so ill.
[正] All his riches are no good to him if he is so ill.
[析] riches为财富,是复数名词,没有单数形式。像这 样的词还有goods(货物),greens(青菜),manners(礼貌)等。
river


[误] We like swimming on the river.
[正] We like swimming in the river.
[误] We like boating in the river.
[正] We like boating on the river.
[析] 游泳用in the river,而在湖中划船要用on the river.
room


[误] There are already three people sitting on the sofa , please try to make a room for her.
[正] There are already three people sitting on the sofa , please try to make room for her.
[析] room作为空间讲时为不可数名词。leave room for… 为给某人留点空地; make room for…为让位给某人,如: The young man made room for an old woman.

run


[误] I ran across with an old friend at the school gate .
[正] I ran across an old friend at the school gate.
[析] run across 为偶然相遇。
[误] The truck ran across the cat.
[正] The truck ran over the cat.
[析] run over为从……上辗过。
[误] Yesterday I ran to a storm on my way home.
[正] Yesterday I ran into a storm on my way home.
[析] run into为撞上或撞在……上。

T

    take 

    [误] This year I want to take the driver's license.

    [正] This year I want to get the driver's license.

    [析] take可以作为动词,意为"拿"、"取",如: I want to take my mail. 而要获得某种证书、证明,要用get而不用take, take在学校范围内意为"参加"或"选修"某些课程,如: This term I want to take both French and Spanish.

    [误] The accident was taken place at the street corner.

    [正] The accident took place at the street corner.

    [析] take place与happen一样作为"发生"讲时没有被动语态。

    [误] Do you take me as a fool?

    [正] Do you take me for a fool?

    [析] take…for…意为"以为是……"、"错当作……"、"误认为",而这一意思还可以用于I took you to be the best friend. (我把你认作是最好的朋友。)

    [误] My English teacher was ill. Who will take place her?

    [正] My English teacher was ill. Who will take the place of her?

    [析] take the place of…意为"取代"。

    talk 

    [误] Yesterday I met an old friend. We talked many things.

    [正] Yesterday I met an old friend. We taked about many things.

    [析] talk是不及物动词。

    team  [误] Our team likes seeing film.

    [正] Our team like seeing film.

    [析] team与family,class等词一样,指整体时为单数名词。如: Our team is excellent, 而指集体中的个体时要用作复数。

    than 

    [误] They made fewer mistakes this term than they made last lerm.

    [正] They made fewer mistakes this term than they did last lerm.

    [析] 当一个动作在同一个句子中重复时,第二次要用do来代替,以避免重复。

    [误] You make me do more then anybody I know.

    [正] You make me do more than anybody I know.

    [误] I got into the restroom than someone knocked at the door.

    [正] I got into the rest room then someone knocked at the door.

    [析] than与then不要误用。

    then 

    [误] We went to the cinema, then went to a Chinese restaurant.

    [正] We went to the cinema, and then went to a Chinese restaurant.

    [正] We went to the cinema; then went to a Chinese restaurant.

    [析] then作"然后"讲时,在then前应加分号而不用逗号,或加逗号用and then,但是如果是倒装句则要用逗号,如: First come Tom, then Mary.

    think 

    [误] I think you are not right.

    [正] I don't think you are right.

    [析] think在肯定句中与中文的习惯用法是一致的,如: I think you are right. 但在宾语从句是否定意思时,要否定think,如: I don't think you are right.

    [误] I think he will come here, do I?

    [正] I think he will come here, wont he?

    [析] think加宾语从句时,反意疑问句的主语应用宾语从句中的主语,助动词要用宾语从句中的助动词,而肯定还是否定要看主句中的情况决定:如主句用肯定句,则反意疑问句用否定句,反之亦然。

    [误] People think very high of his work.

    [正] People think very highly of his work.

    [析] think highly of为"对某人某事评价很高"。

    [误] When we talk about Chinese people we always think the Yellow River.

    [正] When we talk about Chinese people we always think about the Yellow River.

    [析] think about意为"想起"、"想到"。

    thousand 

    [误] He got thousand of books from a secondhandbook shop.

    [正] He got thousands of books from a secondhandbook shop.

    [析] 虽然two thousand, three thousand在thousand后都不加s,但thousands of则为"数千",该结构中一定要加s。

    through 

    [误] I had a long distance call with John throught the telephone.

    [正] I had a long distance call with John on the telephone.

    [误] It took us two hours to walk across the forest.

    [正] It took us two hours to walk through the forest.

    [析] across是表示在一平面上进行的动作,而through则是用在三维空间的动作。如: The river was frozen, so we could walk across it. I pushed through the crowds to the entrance.

    throw 

    [误] He threw a stone to me.

    [正] He threw a stone at me.

    [析] "扔"这个词表示方向时要注意他向我扔石头是at me,我向他扔石头则为to him,但throw at还有寻衅之意,如: Stop throwing stones at the cars. 这时不要误用to.

    time 

    [误] The doctor came on time so she was saved.

    [正] The doctor came in time so she was saved.

    [析] in time为"及时赶到",如: Do you think we can get there in time for the first act. 而on time 意为"准时",如: The train arrived on time.

    [误] It is time we go home.

    [正] It is time we should go home.

    [正] It is time we went home.

    [析] "是该作某事的时候了",其句形为: ① It is time for somebody to do something. ② "It is time+从句",从句中用"should+动词原形",或直接用动词的过去式。

    [误] Let's hurry. We haven't many times.

    [正] Let's hurry. We haven't much time.

    [误] I have been to America two times.

    [正] I have been to America twice.

    [析] time作为"时间"讲时为不可数名词,而作为"次"讲时则是可数名词。但"一次"不是one time,而是once;"二次"不是two times,而是twice;"三次"则是three times.

    too 

    [误] This box is too heavy to lift it.

    [正] This box is too heavy to lift.

    [析] 在too…to这一结构中,如果主语和不定式的宾语是一致的,则不要重复。

    [误] The child is too young not to go to school.

    [正] The child is too young to go to school.

    [析] too…to这一结构用来表示"太……以致于不能……",但下面的句子则不能照此翻译: I'm too glad to meet you. 应译为"我见到你真太高兴了"。

    [误] There is much too noise.

    [正] There is too much noise.

    [析] "much too+形容词",而"too much+不可数名词"。

    [误] You have bought too much tomatoes.

    [正] You have bought too many tomatoes.

    [析] too many后才加可数名词。

    also as well too 

    这三个词是近义词,但其用法各有不同。其一,too和as well通常用于句末,如: She went to the cinema and her brother went too. 而also则不用于句末,如: I've also read her other novels. 其二,这三个词都不用于否定句中,否定句中用not…either,或neither/nor…,如: He isn't here either.

    trousers 

    [误] My trouser is getting smaller and smaller.

    [正] My trousers are getting smaller and smaller.

    [析] 英语中trousers, pants, shorts(短裤),glasses(眼镜)都要用复数形式。

    [误] This pair of glasses are very good.

    [正] This pair of glasses is very good.

    [析] 有了量词a pair of,其后的谓语动词要与量词相一致。如: two pairs of…的谓语动词就要用复数。

    try 

    [误] I tried to send her flowers but it didn't have any effect.

    [正] I tried sending her flowers but it didn't have any effect. (我试着给她送花,但没有什么结果。)

    [误] Please try understanding it.

    [正] Please try to understand it.

    [析] "try+动名词"的意思是"试一试",或"做某事看看会发生什么情况",而"try+不定式"表示为达到目的要去做的事

 

 

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